The relative importance of these classes varied enormously from place to place and from century to century.
In China, for example, there was a long history of unofficial legal advisers—often young men preparing to take imperial examinations for official appointment—who assisted merchants and other laymen in the preparation of legal documents, including those needed to commence litigation.
In the countries of Anglo- American influence, at least until recently, appointment or, in some U. Many Romano-Germanic systems employ officers who supervise the working of the courts, especially their criminal jurisdiction.
If the events constituting the transaction in question happen before the lawyer is consulted, he can only advise on their legal significance and perhaps suggest methods of overcoming legal deficiencies in what has been done. It has frequently been observed that, because of their standardized training, civil-law judges tend to share a common outlook.
There was also a humbler class of paid legal documentary experts, the tabelliones, who were useful in nonlitigious transactions.
In Germany, although the prosecutor is not technically a member of the judiciary, he is not strictly separate from it, and individuals move easily from one position to the other. After the revival of learning in the 12th century, in particular the renewed study of Roman law at Bologna, the influence of the late Roman professional system was greatly strengthened.
In the Anglo-American systems, legal writing has certainly become influential, as indicated by the increase in citations to secondary sources in contemporary judicial opinions.
In the fused professions of North Americasome firms of attorneys, or departments within firms, specialize in business of this type and avoid, so far as they can, the litigious function. Even university law teaching in Europe often involved interchange between practitioner and teacher, exemplified in such great figures as the French 18th-century teacher, advocate, and judge Robert Joseph Pothier, whose commentaries provided the foundation for the Napoleonic Code of civil law.
The early Italian doctors of civil and canon law 12th—15th centuries were revered throughout Europe. The feeling against advocacy in the criminal law was so strong that, at least in cases involving more serious kinds of crime, a right to representation by a trained advocate was nowhere generally recognized until the 18th century.
The modern legal professional, earning his living by fee-paid legal services, first became clearly visible in the late Roman Empire, when the fiction that a jurisconsult received only gifts was abandoned and when at the same time the permissible fees were regulated.
No distinct class of university teachers and commentators on the national law developed in England. Various agents for litigation resembling procurators also became known. In the Romano-Germanic systems it is the notaries and the advocates who have come to be most trusted or admired, the judiciary being more closely identified with the civil service.
Both prosecutors and judges receive the same training, and both may move from one role to the other in the course of their advancement in the civil service.
Other types of legal agents also developed in England, but in the 19th century all of the nonbarristers were brought under the one name, solicitor. Although the division still formally exists in Italyit is no longer of practical importance.
First is the preparation of the case: Individual lawyers, nevertheless, occasionally have been on the side of revolutionaries and rebels; Robespierre and Lenin were both lawyers, to cite two extreme cases.
In the last several years, the legal profession has experienced staggering growth. A steady rise in profits and revenues expanded headcounts and significant salary increases have provided plenty of job opportunities in a broad range of legal positions.
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